Why Is the Discovery of New Antibiotics So Difficult?

In 2018 Isabelle Carnell-Holdaway a cystic fibrosis sufferer was put in ICU after an aggressive infection of Mycobacterium abscessus, a relative of tuberculosis, spread to her liver putting it at risk of failure. With no new classes of antibiotics discovered and available for routine treatment since the 1980s, she was left with a 1% chance of survival. However in under two years, Isabelle went from receiving end-of-life care to preparing to sit her A-levels and learning to drive. It had taken an experimental bacterio-phage therapy treatment instead of antibiotics to save the life of a girl with a seemingly untreatable bacterial infection. This articles will take a look at a few of the factors which made the discovery of an antibiotic that could have treated Isabelle so difficult.

ADHD, ASD, and Schizophrenia

There are several psychological disorders and if we begin to study them one by one, we will be able to observe very distinct characteristics in each one. However, the scope of this article covers 3 common psychological disorders and includes a brief but explanatory profiling of each

What OCD Really Entails

Many of us have all too often heard phrases along the lines of, “this is making me feel OCD” or “I’m so OCD about this thing,” but what is OCD really? Is it as simple as being particular about the arrangement of objects in a given space or the order of colours and letters, or is it much more of a severe, and potentially life changing condition that affects how many individuals function in their daily lives…


Insomnia is a condition of sleep disorder present in the lives of many people. People with insomnia experience hardships in terms of going to sleep, falling asleep, and experience sleep in general in their day-to-day life. Out of all sleep disorders, insomnia is emphasized to be the most common amongst many individuals. Overall, insomnia is proven to be heavily detrimental in the lives of those who have it as they may experience negative and fatigue-like effects due to this disorder. 

Replicative Crisis: Mapping Cellular Fates and Identifying Determinants between Cell Survival and Death

In order to divide indefinitely, most cancerous cells activate the enzyme telomerase, which elongates telomeres. To express telomerase, cells typically survive a state known as replicative crisis. This work explores two areas critical to understanding crisis-related mechanisms: the generation of chromosomal aberrations and cytosolic DNA species during crisis and determinants of cell death versus survival during crisis. Understanding these domains is critical to understanding the process of cancer cell immortalization.

A Brief Overview of Telomeres

For centuries, scientists have pondered about the human body and the structures that make us who we are. In recent decades, advances in genetics have helped us understand more about the human genome and the processes by which we are able to live.

How Have Viruses Contributed to Human Evolution?

Evolution can be defined as the biological process by which the physical characteristics of creatures change over time, new types of creatures develop, and others disappear. With the recent coronavirus pandemic it’s very easy to regard viruses as the enemy of evolution: an arm’s race between a host and a pathogen. This article will explore aspects of human evolution that blur this dichotomy. More specifically how viruses influenced the development of the placenta, the brain and the immune system.

Phobias and How We Can Treat Them

Phobia: the irrational fear of an object or situation. Almost everyone has some irrational fears, however, phobias are when this fear inhibits you from staying grounded and makes you uncontrollable. Specific phobias are one of the most common mental disorders, with an estimated prevalence ranging from ~7% to ~15%.


This article describes the long term effects of COVID 19 survivors. It includes reference studies enlisting long COVID symptoms and the possible mental and physical effects after recovery.

Link Between Social Media and Mental Illness

In today’s digital age, many children are given cellular devices before they have even reached 12 years old. Upon receiving these new phones or tablets, children are immersed into an unfamiliar yet intriguing online world of viral videos, photoshopped images, and trendy lifestyles. While seemingly benign, this newfound online immersion can be detrimental to a child’s mental and emotional wellbeing.

The Race for the Covid-19 Vaccine

There has been a lot of controversy regarding the COVID-19 vaccine development and many challenges still lie ahead despite the fast-paced rollout of various candidates. In this article I explore the way in which this extreme development has occurred due to the pressure and competitive atmosphere we are presently in, as we face a rat race with each nation striving for their own success. This individualised approach is failing to truly achieve the global effort we need in stamping out this pandemic.

Alzheimer’s Disease: Symptoms, Causes, and treatment

Alzheimer’s, a type of dementia, affects memory, thinking and behavior. Oftentimes the effects of Alzheimer’s can influence daily tasks. It alone accounts for 60-80% of all dementia cases. It’s a common misconception that Alzheimer’s is a normal part of aging, those who are older are at a higher risk, but nearly 200,000 Americans under the age of 65 have been reported to have Alzheimer’s.  

What is Antibiotic Resistance?

In the age of modern medicine, antibiotics are prescribed regularly. Antibiotics are helpful in preventing harmful conditions and have reduced fatalities by a large number. Unfortunately, a new problem known as antibiotic resistance is emerging as bacteria becomes resistant to antibiotics. Why is antibiotic resistance growing, and how can it be stopped?

Cloudy Eyes

This poem focuses on blindness, most specifically on one perspective of mental depletion caused from this condition that has started on a later part of their life.

Drug Pricing in the United States

Drug costs are a prominent issue in American healthcare. To investigate health care reform, one must examine the depth of the issue and what can be done. Americans pay higher drug costs than the rest of the world, despite their higher wages and while they also use newer and stronger drugs, some claim that the US is shouldering the burden for drug innovation.

Anosognosia – Not Knowing What You Don’t Know

This article discusses the causes, consequences, and significance of anosognosia, a mental condition that may be easily overlooked without caution. The strange concept of this condition raises the question of how one chooses to believe in something, and whether the act of believing is localized in the brain.

Eating Disorders

More than 30 million people living in the US will have an eating disorder at some point in their lives. Eating disorders are psychological conditions that are related to tenacious eating habits that harm your health. Eating disorders could negatively impact your heart, bones, digestive system, and bones.

A Review of Prion Diseases

Prion diseases, also referred to as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are able to affect humans and animals and can be transmitted by the consumption of infected meat products. With approximately three hundred cases reported in the U.S. every year, prion diseases are a family of rare progressive neurodegenerative diseases and are identified by certain characteristics such as, changes in neuronal loss, and dysfunctioning inflammatory response. 

Non-Communicable Diseases – A Global Epidemic

Non-communicable diseases are probably the most important worldwide health problem of the 21st century. A leading cause of death globally, we need serious action in order to tackle this ‘epidemic’. This article discusses the current situation of NCDs through analysis of its global impact and patterns, along with focused research into diabetes in particular.

The Future of Genetic Engineering

This article covers the current progress of genetic editing, and the future of ‘baby-making” or “designer babies”. It also provides an insight into the ethical dilemma and unavoidable exploitation that accompanies the medical advantages of advancement of genetic engineering.

COVID-19: Can’t We Just Clean The Air Of It?

A year into the global pandemic, more public spaces are re-opening, even when the public remains vulnerable to COVID-19 transmissions. While vaccination and herd immunity remains to be the best approach to handle COVID-19, there are fad products booming in the market, which often promote themselves as the virus end-all-be-all product. But exactly how accurate are these marketing schemes and strategies?

Prions and Associated Diseases

In the last thirty years, a significant finding in the world of medicine was the discovery of prions. Essentially, prions are misfolded proteins that can cause neurodegenerative diseases. One of the earliest cases of a prion-caused disease was scrapie, a disease afflicting sheep.

Adolescent Sleep Deprivation: Effects and Solutions

Sleep deprivation is becoming increasingly prevalent among our youth. In fact, an estimated 50% of children do not receive an adequate amount of sleep each night. In order to solve this crisis, we must ask ourselves: why is sleep deprivation so common, what effects does it have, and how can we put a stop to it?

How Does Memory Work?

Memory is a complex process that makes us who we are. We are a combination of our memory, namely our past experiences. Obviously, our memory isn’t perfect- how many times have you forgotten your keys someplace? Why do we forget things, and how does the process of memory work?


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