Health and Disease

A Look Into India’s Black Fungus Epidemic

By Manasvi Meka

Published 11:35 PM EST, Wed July 14, 2021

What is it?

The black fungus infection of India, also known as “mucormycosis,” is a very rare infection. It isn’t contagious and doesn’t spread from one person to another.  It is caused by exposure to “mucor” that is found in soil, plants, manure, and decaying fruits or vegetables. It affects the sinuses in the brain and causes severe damage in immunocompromised and diabetic patients. Diabetes not only increases a person’s risk for COVID-19 but can also provide conditions in which fungal infection can occur. Mucormycosis begins as a skin infection, but it later progresses to the eyes, lungs, jaws, face, and even to the brain. Dr. Hemant Thacker explains that “One of the ways mucormycosis travels is by invading the blood vessels.” Mucormycosis also blocks blood flow which kills infected tissue, once it dies or becomes necrotic, the tissue has a black discoloration. Thus the term “black fungus” has spread.

Fatality Rates + Process of Attack

Doctors currently believe that the mortality rate of the black fungus is 50%, which may be triggered by the steroids used to treat COVID-19. While steroids help to fight against COVID-19, they also happen to make the body less immune and spike up blood sugar levels. For example, dexamethasone, a drug used to treat COVID-19 suppresses the immunity of an individual, providing a greater leeway for the fungal infection to prevail.   Since there is a drop in immunity when a body gets attacked by COVID-19, patients are becoming far more susceptible to this deadly disease. Dr. VP Pandey, head of the hospital at Maharaja Yeshwantrao Hospital, says that “The black fungus infection has now become more challenging than Covid-19. If patients are not treated in time and properly, then the mortality rate can go up to 94%. The cost of treatment is expensive, and the drugs are in short supply.” 

Symptoms + Treatment

Dr. Anita Mathew, an Infectious disease specialist from Fortis Hospital explains that some of the common symptoms of mucormycosis include sinusitis (nasal blockage or congestion), pain on the cheekbone, facial pain, numbness or swelling, black discoloration over the nose, loosening of teeth (jaw involvement), blurred or double vision with pain, chest pain, or severe respiratory problems.  Mucormycosis is treated with anti-fungal medicines, such as Amphotericin B, taken intravenously. Demand for Amphotericin B is rising continuously every day in India. Other medications like posaconazole or isavuconazole (anti-fungal medicines) can also be taken either intravenously or by mouth.  Another potential treatment is to have surgery in order to remove the necrotic tissue. The disease itself is pretty rare and, according to the San Francisco Bay Area, during 1992-1993, the number of mucormycosis cases was around 1.7 cases per 1 million people. However, due to the prevalence of COVID in India, the risk of getting diagnosed with this disease is on the rise. Even though mucormycosis is a rare disease, please do not disregard it as it could have serious consequences. Additionally, many doctors believe that the most effective way to combat mucormycosis is to wear a mask while venturing out especially to gardens or dusty areas (where chances of inhaling mucor are on the rise). Also, diabetic and immunocompromised individuals should take efforts to control glucose levels. And most importantly, if ANY of the symptoms written above persist, please call your local doctor immediately to get help.

Manasvi Meka, Youth Medical Journal 2021


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Health and Disease

Alzheimer’s Disease: Symptoms, Causes, and treatment

By Manasvi Meka

Published 3:51 PM EST, Sun April 18, 2021


Alzheimer’s is often a slowly progressive disease, so it’s indeed more difficult to spot definitive symptoms. According to Mayo Clinic, some of the symptoms of Alzheimer’s include: repeating statements, forgetting conversations, getting lost in familiar places, forgetting names of family members, difficulty concentrating, inability to make a judgment. The effects of Alzheimer’s on the brain can also affect moods and behaviours such as depression, apathy, mood swings, and wandering. Alzheimer’s can still be treated, so it’s important to get treatment as soon as possible.  


To diagnose the severity of Alzheimer’s doctors run multiple types of tests. They will most probably do a physical and neurological exam by testing: reflexes, muscle tone, coordination, balance, sense of sight and hearing, etc. Doctors are likely to do an MRI scan or a CT scan to produce detailed images of brian.  


While the exact cause of Alzheimer’s isn’t fully understood, the idea is that the brain proteins tend to fail to function properly, which then disrupts the work of neurons. When neurons are damaged, they eventually lose connections and die. In many ways, Alzheimer’s is connected to a combination of genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. 


There are two types of drugs that are currently used to help with Alzheimer’s:

Cholinesterase Inhibitors – Cholinesterase inhibitors aim to increase communication between the nerve cells to improve the symptoms of Alzheimer’s.  

Memantine – Decreases the abnormal brain activity, it also improves the ability to think and slows down the loss of abilities for people who are diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. 

In conclusion, Alzheimer’s disease is a common yet disheartening disease that affects a living body of people across the world. Although there aren’t direct solutions, treatment can improve it. Make sure to contact your local doctor if the symptoms seen above persist. 

Manasvi Meka, Youth Medical Journal 2021


“What is Alzheimer’s Disease?.” CDC, 02 Jun. 2020 Accessed 24 Mar. 2020. 

“Alzheimer’s Disease.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 29 Dec. 2020. Accessed 29 Mar. 2020.,in%20people%20who%20have%20AD. Accessed 28 Mar. 2020. 

“How Do Drugs for Alzheimer’s Disease Work?” Alzheimer’s Society. Accessed 26 Mar. 2020. 

“Memantine: MedlinePlus Drug Information.” MedlinePlus. U.S. National Library of Medicine.