Categories
Poetry

Cloudy Eyes

By Diana Manzanes

Published 7:49 PM EST, Mon April 12, 2021

My eyes, a bridge I cannot cross

Unlike before, tears fall down like a starting rain

A rain I cannot be free from

Oh I do hope I get better 

I blink to free me from this blurry rain that won’t stop falling

But only a cloud stays, getting bigger by the days

This burden bedevils me

Oh how the days go by

The lies only reinforce this dark bridge that this site has created

“It’ll get better,” they said

Broken silence follows as things get worse

Oh how feelings grow accustomed to such torment

More rain falls and a flooded river keeps falling

I can no longer see the people around me

For they are only shadows to this empty soul to let go

Oh how bothersome

I can still see the sun when it rains

But only it’s only a defeat for my reach

I no longer want this weather

Oh how the clouds won’t leave

My eyes are cloudy with non-stop rain

So many clouds that I cannot see

Only those around me can witness my burden now

Oh how these eyes can be

Diana Manzanes, Youth Medical Journal 2021

Categories
Poetry

Troublesome Lungs

By Diana Manzanes

Published 3:32 PM EST, Tues April 6, 2021

This troublesome condition stabs my chest

As I am left to partake in no more

Than minimal gasps of air, that are so pressed

They savagely leave me on the floor.

Oh how I adore the youths that run free

With no knives jutted at their lungs.

Utter glee I have for the chance to flee

And be careless like those that are among.

But before then, I must suffer this wait,

For I am surrounded by private eyes.

A cost I must bear to open this gate

That has hindered me from getting the prize.

So long my troublesome lungs I dearly 

Hope, A path I see so very clearly.

Diana Manzanes, Youth Medical Journal 2021

Categories
Poetry

Forgotten

All eyes were leering at her vile fate,

But not a trace of life was left in her eyes.

The son, as vulnerable as when he was a child,

Held her hand for moments and moments more.

“Mother? Do you remember me?”

The old woman like a lifeless doll

Was still for a long moment until a breath of life came before her

“Who…you?” 

Cold it may seem, but refutable to the occurrence.

The question only to bring curiosity into her for a moment, 

But soon to be feigned as nothing by the woman.

Forgotten.

Sadness filled the air,

But it was yet only a moment of corroded doom for the son’s fate

He could not come to terms with.

It was one of many.

Moments to be forgotten.

Diana Manzanes, Youth Medical Journal 2021

Categories
Health and Disease

OIT for Peanut Allergies

Introduction

You felt a feeling of discomfort on your skin.  Not only could you feel your face itch increasing by the minute, but you could also feel a tightness around your throat. This is one of the results of a food allergy. Peanut allergies are responsible for allergies more than others as it tends to be the main propagator of life threatening reactions such as anaphylaxis. Since peanuts have ubiquitous uses, the FDA approved the existence of Palforzia, a product designed to mitigate the reactions caused by the peanut allergens. 

Peanut Allergies

Peanut allergies affect approximately 1 million children in the U.S. and are one of the primary food allergies associated with anaphylaxis [5]. The main symptoms of a peanut allergy are not confined to itching, swelling of the skin, redness, tightening of the throat, and anaphylaxis[1]. These symptoms can be caused by multiple forms of contact such as direct contact, wherein the person may have accidentally ingested the peanut allergen or had physical contact with it on the skin[1]. Another type of contact involves accidentally inhaling dust or aerosols containing peanuts[1]. The immune system responds to an allergy by recognizing the harmless substances as something harmful. On a molecular level, the T helper cell is responsible for initiating the peanut allergy response, which is different from the ones of individuals who don’t have peanut allergies [2]. T helper cells for those without peanut allergies produce IFN-y and IL-10, which results in the toleration of peanut allergens, while the T helper cells of those with peanut allergies are deprived of this function as such leaving the individual with an IgE-mediated type I hypersensitivity reaction[2,3].

Oral Immunotherapy Treatment (OIT)

To tackle the extreme peanut allergen responses, an immunotherapy called Oral Immunotherapy Treatment or OIT was developed. OIT lessens the immune response to food allergies by building a level of tolerance to allergens[4]. It is beneficial as it may then lower the risk of anaphylaxis. The procedure of OIT begins with the consumption of peanut allergens closely observed by health professionals[4]. Later on, the same dosage is sent home to be taken for two weeks on a daily schedule. This creates a system in which the person participating in the treatment consistently repeats the in-office and at home dosage use[4].  

On January 31, 2020, the FDA approved Palforzia, a peanut powder type of treatment that consists of three total phases[5]. The first stage is called the Initial Dose Escalation phase wherein it is administered in just one day[5]. The second stage occurs over several months but unlike the first phase, it increases by 11 dose levels over that time[5]. The last stage involves management which is a daily maintenance dose[5]. Palforzia consists of capsules for the first two stages and a satchel for the third[5]. As for the consumption of powder, it is taken out of the capsule and/or satchel and mixed into a semisolid[5]. 

Conclusion

Peanut allergens are one of the primary reasons for life-threatening responses for many Americans, driving the need for finding a definite treatment for managing these allergy responses. Palforzia helps to reduce that risk and although Palforzia is not the first of its kind, as an OIT, it is one step closer to helping those at risk of peanut allergies live better and healthier lives. 

Diana Manzanes, Youth Medical Journal 2021


References

[1]“Peanut Allergy – Symptoms and Causes.” Mayo Clinic,  , 2020, http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/peanut-allergy/symptoms-causes/syc-20376175#:~:text=An%20allergic%20response%20to%20peanuts,stomach%20cramps%2C%20nausea%20or%20vomiting. Accessed 2 Jan. 2021.

[2]Shah, Faisal, et al. “Peanut Allergy: Characteristics and Approaches for Mitigation.” Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, vol. 18, no. 5, 25 June 2019, pp. 1361–1387, onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1541-4337.12472, 10.1111/1541-4337.12472. Accessed 2 Jan. 2021.

[3]‌Al-Muhsen, Saleh, et al. “Peanut Allergy: An Overview.” CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal = Journal de l’Association Medicale Canadienne, vol. 168, no. 10, 2003, pp. 1279–85, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC154188/. Accessed 2 Jan. 2021.

[4]“New FDA-Approved Oral Immunotherapy Marks Important Milestone in Peanut Allergy Management | Norwalk.” Westernconnecticuthealthnetwork.org, 3 Feb. 2020, http://www.westernconnecticuthealthnetwork.org/newsroom/article-listing/peanut-allergy-treatment. Accessed 2 Jan. 2021.

[5]‌Office of the Commissioner. “FDA Approves First Drug for Treatment of Peanut Allergy for Children.” U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2020, http://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-drug-treatment-peanut-allergy-children. Accessed 2 Jan. 2021.‌

Categories
Health and Disease

Romosozumab: The Dual-Acting Osteoporosis Drug

Introduction

Osteoporosis is a common disease that affects more than 10 million Americans today. Osteoporosis has most likely affected either you or those close to you. In order to address these concerns, anabolic or antiresorptive therapies were used as a solution, but over the last decades, there was a problem that occurred when taking the anabolic medication since it also promoted bone resorption which made the effects of bone formation less effective. This is where Romosozumab comes into action. Romosozumab or Evenity deals with that issue since it has anti-resorption qualities.

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is essentially the condition in which your bones become brittle or very fragile. Old bones are constantly being broken down while new bone is constantly being made. When you are younger, you are creating more bone mass than you are breaking down bone. As you grow older, that creation of bone mass steadily grows slower. Typically osteoporosis occurs to those of old age since they tend to not make enough bone mass. With osteoporosis, bone loss happens at a higher rate than with bone growth. The name of the bone disease ties into what it is since it means porous bone. It is called porous bone due to how healthy bones look like honeycomb, whereas osteoporosis bones have much larger holes and spaces. People typically don’t know they have osteoporosis since they can’t feel their bones being weakened until facing the first signs such as breaking a bone or the height of their spine decreases.

Evenity

Romosozumab is a treatment that was approved by the FDA in April 2019. The treatment works by injecting two syringes once a month for a year. In previous treatments, drug therapy was limited to antiresorptive agents, which was used to slow down bone loss. There was also the anabolic medication that was previously mentioned wherein it helped to increase bone formation but had the problem of bone resorption which is basically motivating breaking down the old bone. To fix this issue, Romosozumab has the simultaneous ability to help regulate bone metabolism and decrease bone resorption. Evenity was essentially approved to treat postmenopausal women who had high rates of fractures. The treatment will reduce that risk, but it’s side effects include joint pain and headache, with an additional risk of heart attack, stroke, and cardiovascular death.

Conclusion

Romosozumab has made treatment for osteoporosis much easier as it has improved upon the last medications’ downfalls. Although it is shown to help treat mainly women–one of the main people at risk of osteoporosis–as it is a more current medical advancement, it lacks long-term data. That doesn’t disregard its credibility since it has shown mainly positive effects whether in the trials or more prominent cases. 

Diana Manzanes, Youth Medical Journal 2020

References

“Learn What Osteoporosis Is and What It’s Caused By.” National Osteoporosis Foundation, 25 Sept. 2020, http://www.nof.org/patients/what-is-osteoporosis/.  

“Osteoporosis.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 19 June 2019, http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/osteoporosis/symptoms-causes/syc-20351968. 

“#1 Dual-Acting Osteoporosis Drug.” Cleveland Clinic Innovations – Top 10 Medical Inventions | Cleveland Clinic Innovations, innovations.clevelandclinic.org/Programs/Top-10-Medical-Innovations/Top-10-for-2020/1-Alternative-Therapy-for-Pain-Fighting-the-Opioi. 

Commissioner, Office of the. “FDA Approves New Treatment for Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women at High Risk of Fracture.” U.S. Food and Drug Administration, FDA, http://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-new-treatment-osteoporosis-postmenopausal-women-high-risk-fracture. 

David M. Slovik, MD. “A New Therapy for Osteoporosis: Romosozumab.” Harvard Health Blog, 17 July 2019, http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/a-new-therapy-for-osteoporosis-romosozumab-2019071717339. 

Categories
Poetry

Sick Relations

In sickness and in health

she stayed with you

only to bring a pitfall of your own demise

Glass by glass

Like a mixture of sour and sweet

She brought you temporary happiness

As you lay there

In the hospital bed

Wallowing as she takes your liberty

For she is like lemon in the eyes

Painful as your once clear vision is taken

A pain that is clear on your lower abdomen

And yet, you still ignore the signs

At the first stage

She has left you but a fatty liver

not too late to reverse

But that selfishness you hold keeps her close

Rusted and corroded

The second stage appears

The signs are clear now

It is still within your grasp to turn back

Except you won’t let go of your selfish longing 

You’ve followed your selfish thoughts of woe 

And she existed

Like a lemon, your skin is tinted yellow 

Onesidedly

She has left you with many scars

As your liver takes a toll on your mistakes

You are but a dead man

As the last stage is too late to reverse

And you won’t stop wanting her

Diana Manzanes, Youth Medical Journal 2020

References

“Alcohol-Related Liver Disease.” NHS Choices, NHS, http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/alcohol-related-liver-disease-arld/.