Categories
Biomedical Research

Sex Differences in Neural Mechanisms Moderating Benefit and Dependency

By Ilma Khan

Published 10:07 PM EST, Mon June 28, 2021

Introduction

Things such as peer pressure, depression, and exposure to abuse and trauma can lead to the use of drugs. Using drugs once, telling yourself “just this one time” can lead to a brain disorder called addiction, using things such as alcohol and drugs despite knowing the life-threatening causes. In this review, we get to focus and discuss the main sex differences in the behavioral effects and the atomic structure of psychostimulants such as cocaine and opioids such as morphine and heroin. Some data given in this review allows us to conclude that males (ages 12–25) are more likely to abuse or be dependent upon marijuana or alcohol, and females (ages 12-25) are more likely to abuse or be dependent upon cocaine and psychotherapeutic drugs. As stated in the review, a recent cross-cultural analysis of sex/gender differences in substance use disorders displays a major diversity across cultures, showing that men are more likely to have access to substances than women, this difference in accessibility appears to account for much of the gender difference in the generality of substance use. The goal of this review was for us as the audience to understand the 5 w’s to the differences and similarities between males and females, besides, we cannot assume that females are just males with the letters “f” and “e” attached to the front. After advancing and growing this research to further levels is the only way addictive disorders can be successfully prevented and treated in the entire population.

General Analysis

This paper displays a detailed, informative, and deep understanding of the variations of drug use between males and females. Not only does it allow us, readers, to see these differences between genders, but allows us to see the effects of addiction on chromosomes, autosomes, and hormones in females and males. The sections in this paper allow us the readers to focus on the sex differences on the four neural systems that are the main characters in the addictive process, dopamine, MORs, dynorphin, and BDNF. Neural systems are structures of cells, tissues, and organs that regulate the body’s responses to internal and external stimuli, these systems contain the brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia, and parts of the receptor and effector organs. It was an interesting read, with the details included in the paper it enhanced my knowledge further on the contrasts in brain activity among the genders. This study and research have played a role in the contribution of medical knowledge to our society by defining and stating the fact that there are differences in the process of addiction in males and females. These dissimilarities are identified by identifying the gaps in knowledge about how neural systems communicate with each gender and influence addictive behavior, emphasizing throughout that the effect of sex can cause a subtle difference, indicating that male/female drug use data should be recorded despite the outcome.

Evaluation of Methods Used

The techniques used in this paper are effective and can be used to solve other problems in modern-day society related to the neural systems and addiction. Addiction is very common in today’s society, these addictive disorders, these brain disorders are a real problem in today’s society in the entire population, which—at the last U.S. census count (2010)—was 50.8% female. The information and detail are given in this paper plus the addition of more future research can bring us closer to approaching the prevention and treatment of addiction. The researchers and writers of this paper highlighted the missing spaces in knowledge and led us into new research about the mechanisms specifically mediating addiction in both genders. The methods used in this paper led us to the conclusion of the differences and similarities between genders in addiction as well as the characters in the process of addiction and the development of the addiction cycle,  three-stage cycle: 1. initiation/escalation, 2. withdrawal/negative affect, and 3. preoccupation/craving. The researchers know that there is a long journey ahead of them to find the treatment of addiction that is effective for each gender, they know that more research needs to be done. Overall the paper did find a conclusion to the connection between the neural systems and addiction but many questions are left unanswered and need to be answered by more research on this brain disorder.

Audience

Concerns that can arise from this study include the relationship between animals and humans. Animal testing to find an additional treatment may work but translating this to humans will cause more obstacles. The number of people depending on their gender, female or male that are addicted to the use of drugs varies, comparing data from past years to now indicates that numbers have declined but also increased in some situations. This can cause worries by making sure that both treatments work for each gender, in some cases more females are addicted and in some cases, males are more addicting. It is important to find a treatment for both genders and not one and it is also important that all addiction reports are recorded, every gender, every person counts toward the journey of preventing and treating this disorder. This paper was published in the right journal, neuropsychopharmacology is the study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and its consequences on the mind and behavior. This journal focuses on this study of the drugs and its connections to the nervous system which is what is displayed in this research paper by connecting addiction in genders with neural systems. The readers and audience of this journal will care for this research since it correlates with the idea of drugs and the nervous system, the main subject of this journal. 

Problems and Admirations

The methods and evaluation techniques in this paper are very in-depth, there is lots of information and lots of discussion about every aspect of the influences of drugs on each gender’s hormones, chromosomes, etc. The system of methods allows us to grow our knowledge but gives me individually a hard time to comprehend all of this information at once. The idea is stated clearly, there are and always will be differences and similarities of addiction between genders but the evidence given to back this up is almost too in-depth. All the answers are situated within the paper for readers to find which does not allow us to be curious or do more research of our own. It is almost too long, I think they could’ve been more broad and kept it more simple and short which would allow us the audience to interpret more things and ask more questions. I appreciated the connections made about the organizational vs. activational influences on each gender, they allowed readers to dig deep into the writers’ thoughts and thoughts. The future related to addiction after this research is big and long, the researchers and writers of this paper also have some biological questions that arose from their research such as “Are there sex differences in the efficacy of pharmacotherapy treatments (i.e., methadone, buprenorphine, naloxone) for opioid addiction?”. I think that from the publication of this paper, more researchers will be inspired to join on the journey for finding addiction treatment and to answer the biological question that arose from the framework of this paper. Future researchers will use our knowledge today and answer the question many researchers have today about addiction to approach the decline of addiction. 

Ilma Khan, Youth Medical Journal 2021

References

“Sex Differences in Neural Mechanisms Mediating Reward and Addiction | Neuropsychopharmacology.” Neuropsychopharmacology, Springer Nature, https://www.nature.com/articles/s41386-018-0125-6. Accessed 7 June 2021.

Categories
Biomedical Research

Delivery of Nucleic Acid Therapeutics for Cancer Immunotherapy

By Ilma Khan

Published 6:08 PM EST, Fri June 11, 2021

Introduction

Living in this advanced world today allows us to have access to new incoming ideas such as the use of various drugs that can have great potential and benefit different diseases such as cancer. In this research journal, they focus on the great potential of cancer immunotherapy using various immuno-oncology drugs. The use of nucleic acid therapeutics on different diseases, specifically cancer, has advanced day by day, showing us how different drugs have unique abilities and how these abilities have advanced in the world we live in today. Through trial and error researchers have figured out problems each therapeutic faces, for example, negative charges and hydrophilicity known as the attraction to water. In this research, we learn about the different drug delivery systems that can safely release and target specific cells. Some of the different drugs that can be used to target specific tissues and cells include small interfering RNA (siRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA). A few of the discussed delivery systems that can safely transport these drugs to the targeted area includes the nanoparticulate drug delivery system of nucleic acid therapeutics using micelle and the delivery of cGAMP using liposomes (structured cGAMP vs. free cGAMP). After the experimenting and research, the results have displayed that these nucleic acid therapeutics have a remarkable amount of potential for a vast assortment of diseases. Each drug has unique skills and characteristics such as changing gene expression and regulating protein function for immune responses but also has challenges blocking the delivery systems to achieve effective transportation to the targeted cells. Each day new delivery systems are created and modifications are made to different therapeutics which would allow us to issue problems connected to the treatment in the immunotherapy of cancer.

General Analysis

Through the process of reading, analyzing, and critiquing this paper many reasons indicate why this paper makes a good contribution to society. The specifics in this paper allows us the readers and writers to dig deep and think. The use of different words we’ve never heard or seen and the use of deep topics that take time to understand makes the readers ask themselves questions and makes them left wanting more, therefore, resulting in researching deeper into the topic. This paper discussed the different nucleic acid therapeutics, the advanced delivery systems of these therapeutics, and the positive functionalities as well as the challenges of these therapeutics allowing the audience to see these therapeutics from all angles so he can add more to the research. Another reason why this paper is a good read is that the paper provides sufficient proof of how science and medicine have advanced together. The paper provides a visual timeline dating back to 1995 when the first description of CpG-dependent stimulation was created. This paper has contributed to the medical society by bringing in new medical knowledge related to different nucleic acid therapeutics and their delivery systems. This paper brought in new medical information by displaying the pros and cons of each drug and the different delivery systems that can be used to target specific diseases. This paper can allow other researchers to conduct experiments on therapeutics and use their information to see which delivery system will work best with the disease they are targeting. This paper presents proof and factual information about what therapeutics have the potential to use towards cancer immunotherapy, leading other researchers into using their research to help towards another experiment. 

Evaluation of Methods Used

The methods utilized in this paper allow for a variety of diseases to be treated, the research was open-ended and shows the potential for each therapeutic and how it can be delivered to target specific tissues and cells. Listing many options for delivery systems and many characteristics for each drug allows other researchers to solve other problems using this research. This research was done on the immunotherapy of cancer using nucleic acid therapeutics meaning it could work on a wide range of cancer types. The researcher’s methods brought proof indicating that these therapeutics could work on the immunotherapy of cancers, they displayed how these drugs can be used and which drugs we should use to be treating this cancer. The treatment of cancer is evolving every day, different medical researchers are looking to find a way to cure cancer and this research could play a big role in finding a sufficient treatment of cancer. As stated in this paper the FDA is starting to approve more studies involving nucleic acids and immunotherapy. Indicating that it will have a significant impact in treating different types of cancers and diseases.

Audience

There are negatives and positives to everything, there are side effects but these effects can also result in something life-changing. This paper provides a variety of information indicating the success of using these therapeutics on cancer immunotherapy but there are still concerns. Concerns regarding the different side effects on the human body after immunotherapy using these drugs, the survival rate, and the possibility of taking all or most of cancer away. Could these therapeutics lead to a new disease in the human body, taking away one cancer resulting in new cancer developing? There may be great proof and progress of using these therapeutics for different diseases but the challenges still exist. Challenges such as could this drug be toxic for the human body, the quantity of this drug vs. how much it costs and as well as what happens to the therapeutics inside my body after the treatment. This paper was published in the right journal for the correct audience that would put interest into this topic. This paper shows how the discovery of nucleic acid therapeutics can work towards advancing medicine and cure a life-threatening disease. 

Problems and Admirations

In this paper, I enjoyed the different points of view on each drug and delivery system. The method used in this paper allows the readers to deeply think about each topic and step on the journey to treating cancer. I admire the researcher’s evaluation techniques as they went in-depth and provided an outstanding amount of information on this topic, hooking the readers causing them to keep reading and researching more about this topic. The researchers brought hope and showed how advances in medicine today can change anyone’s life. After reading this paper I understood the writer’s thought process, I understood all the different ideas they were thinking and it allowed me to feel grateful for the new innovative ideas we have that can save someone’s life. After this paper is published it will show people the future we have that is full of ideas worthy of doing anything. It will allow others to take the little ideas and thoughts in their heads and turn them into something beautiful. This research will contribute to other studies and allow us to be one step closer on the journey to find a cure for cancer. 

Ilma Khan, Youth Medical Journal 2021

References

“Delivery of Nucleic Acid Therapeutics for Cancer Immunotherapy – ScienceDirect.” ScienceDirect.Com | Science, Health and Medical Journals, Full Text Articles and Books., https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2590098620300105. Accessed 17 May 2021.

Categories
Biomedical Research

Visuoperceptual disturbances within Parkinson’s Disease

By Ilma Khan

Published 4:50 PM EST, Thurs April 29, 2021

Introduction

More than ten million people in the world today are living with Parkinson’s Disease, this disease increases with age but about 4% percent of people today are diagnosed with PD before the age of 50. This study, placed in China displays visuoperceptual disturbances such as contrast sensitivity, colour discrimination, overlapping object identification, face recognition and facial emotion recognition in Parkinson’s disease. With the motivation of clarifying the clinical and neural features of visual perceptual disturbances in PD. Through the use of 96 participants, 48 with PD and 48 healthy they conducted several tests and tasks to see the level of perceptual skills the participants possess. The types of tests and tasks used to evaluate the skills included cube/pentagon copying and clock drawing tasks from the Visual Object and Space Perception Battery (VOSP). Other tests included were incomplete letters, dot counting, position discrimination, number location and cube analysis all from the VOSP. After conducting the tests and acquiring the results, the noticeable decrease in the position discrimination and incomplete letter scores in the PD group were significant, having the largest outcome proportions. When comparing the two scores with visual networks and functional connectivity the PD group with decreased scores in the incomplete letter test had regions with decreased functional connectivity neighbouring the calcarine sulcus in the primary visual network. The regions also had decreased interregional functional connectivity with bilateral lingual gyri but increased connectivity with the thalamus. Leading the researchers to conclude that the incomplete letters test may be too delicate to detect perceptual disturbances in PD and that reduced connectivity in the frontal visual feedback path may have contributed to these shortages.

General Analysis

As stated in the above paragraph more than 10 million people in the world today are living with PD, indicating that this disease plays a huge role in the diseases involved with people today, affecting their lives every day. Visual perceptual skills are the brain’s ability to make sense of what the eyes see making it extremely important for daily lifestyle, these skills affect everyday activities such as dressing, eating, writing and even playing. With the astounding number of people in today’s society with Parkinson’s disease, it makes it very important for everyone to know the difficulties these people have with activities that we do daily. The tests conducted in the experiment such as the clock drawing task imitates the skills required to read a clock, displaying the difficulty people with Parkinson’s disease may develop over time to read a clock. This specific research can not only help the people that deal with Parkinson’s disease but the people that have significant others and relatives with Parkinson’s. This paper is a good read because it allows us to visualize the different types of difficulties people with this specific disease deal with, it allows us to grow our knowledge about Parkinson’s disease. This research can inspire and motivate us to conduct more studies and research on Parkinson’s disease as well as contribute to helping us dig deeper into the other difficulties people with PD deal with.

Evaluation of Methods Used

The systems and techniques used in this research display as effective because the methods can be used to solve other problems. The methods used such as using different tests can be moved forward to other studies that focus on different diseases and their disturbances can be identified with these tasks. Through the use of clarifying neural and clinical features of disturbances in Parkinson’s disease, the methods employed can help clarify other features of disturbances in different types of diseases. After identifying the disturbances in the diseases with the tests, researchers can find ways and methods that lead to the benefiting of the disturbances. Leading to a benefiting impact in the daily lives of peoples that live with this life-changing disease. With the motivation of clarifying disturbances in Parkinson’s disease, the methods and systems used in this research solve and answer the entire problem. The research solves and answers the problem by clarifying disturbances in daily life caused by the disease such as problems in copying, drawing, reading and identifying.

Audience

The arising of concerns in this study would not be likely since the research focuses on the disturbances individually and not how to fix or benefit the disturbances. Although questions could arise from the study such as what other disturbances are involved in this disease, what other tests could be used to see the other specific disturbances, would other disturbances play an impact in the daily lives of people as well as if these disturbances make a larger difference or impact then the disturbances noted in this research. Questions can arise from all studies and experiments, this research in specific can help other researchers conducting experiments on diseases close to Parkinson’s identify the other impacts diseases have on the daily lives of people. This article and research were published in the right Journal since this journal focuses on Parkinson’s disease and diseases related to it. This journal focuses heavily and specifically on Parkinson’s disease and this research studies specific disturbances in Parkinson’s disease, making the journal and this research a perfect match. If this research was published into this journal, the audience of this journal would care for this research and put it to good use such as informing others about this disease as well as help the patients affected by Parkinson’s disease.

Problems and Admirations

I admired the methods employed in this paper as they were exceedingly effective. The use of 96 participants, 48 with Parkinson’s Disease and 48 Healthy served as an efficient participant size which helped in determining the true and unbiased visuoperceptual disturbances caused by Parkinson’s within patients. I enjoyed the use of different tests and tasks from different people, showing the effectiveness of the tests and tasks by implementing them into this research and inspiring others to do the same. The use of different tests and tasks from other researchers displayed the idea of how using other researches can benefit and contribute to the new research being conducted. There are limitations listed in this study some of which are only performing scanning and cognitive evaluation during the ON which means the findings must be interpreted carefully when comparing to other studies under different conditions, from this limitation in the future, researchers can conduct the scanning and cognitive evaluation during the OFF state. Another limitation included in this study includes the bot studying of typical Parkinsonian syndromes which limits the specifics of the shortages, in the future researchers can conduct studies on atypical parkinsonian syndromes leading to more specific details on the shortages. To get into more detail and specifics in the clinical features of PD as the study states, larger studies are needed to establish clinical significance. This could allow future researchers to conduct larger studies and satisfy as well as confirm the disturbances measured in this study. The future of Parkinson’s Disease is bright, so many more researches are yet to come which will help the victims of this disease live life to the fullest.

Ilma Khan, Youth Medical Journal 2021

References

“Visuoperceptual Disturbances in Parkinson’s Disease – ScienceDirect.” ScienceDirect.Com | Science, Health and Medical Journals, Full Text Articles and Books., https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2590112520300049?via=ihub. Accessed 17 Apr. 2021.

Categories
Biomedical Research

The Effects of Different Exercises on Women with Metabolic Syndrome

By Ilma Khan

Published 4:13 PM EST, Sun April 11, 2021

Introduction

Obesity is known as a weight that is higher than what is considered healthy for a given height. About 13% of the world’s population is obese meaning almost 975 million people in this world today are considered obese and overweight. Metabolic syndrome can also be known as a cluster of different conditions that occur together, these conditions risk you for heart stroke, heart disease and even diabetes. Conditions included in metabolic syndrome are increased blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist, and abnormal cholesterol. Irisin is a hormone that produces health benefits from exercise and a good diet, it is a hormone that regulates weight. The aiming and motivation for this study were to investigate the effects of different exercises on the levels of irisin and metabolism/body size-related symptoms. The types of exercises used to study the effects included aerobic, resistance, and combined exercises. The methods employed in this randomized clinical trial incorporated the use of 60 women considered overweight living with metabolic syndrome. Each woman was assigned into one exercise group out of the four, including the control group. For more accurate results, the participants were measured before and after the intercession period. The results produced displayed a significant increase in muscle mass in the resistance and combined exercise groups, a notable decrease in the body fat percentage of each participant was discovered in all exercise groups additionally none of the groups showed an important difference in the serum irisin.

General Analysis

This is a good paper to read because it focuses on a very common problem in our society today. With all these new cultures forming, these new curiosities forming people discover food. Eating an unhealthy amount of food with no sufficient exercise ultimately leads to the build-up of fat, increasing the number we see on the scale. Your height correlates with your weight, for your weight to be considered normal your height needs to play a part in it. Discoveries, new flavours, new tastes, new cravings all-cause temptations that we as humans  have a hard time resisting, after all, it is human nature to try new things and have desires as well as temptations. The significance of this paper today associates with the fact that so many people are trying to lose weight, many of these people may even be located in our club and this study allows us to know which exercises are more efficient than others, which exercises will produce results, this study provides proof to back up the conclusion. This trial will help everyone around the world starting from readers like us to our friends and family. Obesity has taken over 10 percent of our worldwide population today, it affects their lifestyles every single day, from their health to their judgment from others. With the help of these researchers, we can lead these people to a more healthy lifestyle. 

Evaluation of Methods Used

The methods used in this paper are effective, they allow for a clear representation of the exercises involved such as running on the treadmill, the number of participants involved such as 15 participants in each exercise group and a detailed conclusion of the trial’s results such as a notable decrease in the percent of body fat. The system of techniques involved in conducting this trial was displayed as efficient since all of them contributed  to the creation a fully developed answer to the motivation of the study. The motivation of this study included the investigation of the effects of different exercises on the levels of irisin and metabolism/body size-related symptoms which fully answered the question and gave a complete solution to the problem of this study. The observations included in this study allowed for a detailed understanding. The conclusion allowed the audience to understand that the 8-week exercise program did not modify the irisin hormone and displayed that this hormone was closely correlated with the body fat percentage independent of physical exercise.

Audience

Concerns can arise from any study in any trial, it all comes down to the person who is willing to volunteer and participate in the specific trial. The benefits can only be truly identified once the trial is fully completed, the pros and cons of every research and study allow participants to determine whether they are willing to risk their health. The results of an experiment such as this can be negative or positive but in the end, it all comes down, should I take a risk? Topics on which questions can arise from this study include where the body fat drops from visually? How much body fat drops? After the trial what is the procedure? Will participating in this trial affect my emotions such as causing me to be more motivated or even less motivated to help my body? My personal preference enables me to believe that this research paper was published in the right journal. As from the title of this journal, it is indicated that this journal focuses and discusses the science of exercise and fitness. The main focus of this study is the variations of exercises and their correlation to hormones and body fat. The connection between this journal and the article allows me to believe that the audience of this journal will truly care and learn from the research.

Problems and Admirations

I admire the use of different diagrams and pictures that allow for a more detailed understanding of how the trial took place and the details of the components that played a part in the trial. Such as the types of exercises each group did and the maximum heart rate of each group, and the duration of each exercise. I enjoyed the employment of a basic idea such as exercising and pairing it up with a common obstacle in many people’s lives. After this research, the lives of overweight people will be affected. New researches and studies will be conducted to further improve their lives and set them on the path for a healthy lifestyle. The future is bright, innovations from basic ideas will unfold and more people will be fit and healthy. More researchers will take common ideas of today and pair them with different obstacles people face every day. This is the today that leads us to our bright and innovative tomorrow.        

Ilma Khan, Youth Medical Journal 2021

References

“The Effects of Aerobic, Resistance, and Combined Exercises on the Plasma Irisin Levels, HOMA-IR, and Lipid Profiles in Women with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial – ScienceDirect.” ScienceDirect.Com | Science, Health and Medical Journals, Full Text Articles and Books., https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1728869X20302033. Accessed 17 Mar. 2021.

Categories
Health and Disease

The Analogy between Procrastination and Sleep Quality

By Ilma Khan

Published 4:47 PM EST, Fri March 5, 2021

Introduction

As a high school student and occasional procrastinator, the effect and outcomes of procrastination can be significantly noticed in my daily lifestyle. Procrastination is more than just a tendency to delay tasks, it is a whole system of outcomes and effects that play a role in our daily lives. Affecting us from our sleep schedule to our mood and the way we interact with others. The motivation of this study focused primarily on the examination of relationships between self-reported procrastination and the different dimensions of sleep. More than 8000 students, older than the age of 18 in the U.S completed a survey from the Healthy Minds Study addressing mental health and related issues. The questions asked in this survey brought insight into the mean sleep duration, insomnia symptoms, daytime sleepiness and sleep medication. To view the degree of procrastination in each adult, the General Procrastination Scale was used, allowing each participant to view how much each statement in the scale described themselves. Combining the procrastination and sleep data resulted in different connections being made between the two. As displayed in the study greater levels of procrastination were noticeably associated with greater social jetlag, and shorter weeknight sleep duration, but not weekend night sleep duration. Further on, procrastination was linked with insomnia symptoms and daytime sleepiness but not sleep medication use. Lastly, procrastination can be accompanied by greater social jetlag, shorter sleep duration, and worse sleep quality. The outcomes propose that interruptions to avoid and control procrastination can help adults improve their sleep health.

General Analysis

The indicated article is a good read since it deals with a very familiar and real issue. The simplicity of procrastination and its correspondence with sleep emphasizes the idea of how something little can affect something important and be small but yet become so impactful and powerful. Medicine can be seen as complex, from talking about our DNA to the neurons in our brain we underestimate the focus on the compact ideas. The habit of procrastination is so widespread but yet is still understudied in the realm of health behaviors. Significantly, this article brings aim to the topic of widespread procrastination in young adults and its life-impacting results on sleep. Therefore, this article is a good read, the insight provided and displayed shows us the students to make a difference in our lives that will make us successful and positively benefit us as humans. In today’s society, with the pandemic and the stress that comes with it, we start caving and delaying. We start closing and distancing from reality. The completion or beginning of a task brings us closer to reality but yet we drift away. Therefore, we procrastinate and voluntarily delay even if the delay brings negative impacts. The notable study of the relationship between these two common factors will bring attention to the negativity, interruptions and stress we deal with every day. This article brings awareness to something so simple but yet so powerful in every single human’s life and consequently is viewed as important in today’s society. 

Evaluation of Methods Used

The system of techniques used in this study can be deemed as effective as they provided a sufficient amount of insight and proof into solving the problem and answering the motivation of this study. The methods employed such as using over 8000 participants from a variety of universities were effective as the large sample size provided more sufficient answers. The great simple size reduced the risk of false or inaccurate results in determining how procrastination can affect jetlag, insomnia and sleep duration. The use of a survey that was established many years ago can also be viewed as successful since it is a trusted source and over 200,000 people have responded to the survey, these people come from over 180 different colleges and universities. Seeing that these methods are effective can pursue us to think that these methods can be used to solve other problems. The survey used, the number of participants used and the procrastination scale used, all help towards cracking another mystery and solving another problem. Accurate and trusted sources can always provide true results. The methods used are effective and efficient, therefore they solve all the problems. The results were produced to bring attention to the relationship between sleep and procrastination. This relationship was the main target of this study, the negatives, as well as the positives of this relationship, were intended to come out and they did. The entire problem was solved with these methods.

Audience

As stated before, concerns and worries arise from anything and everything. Worrying and stressing is human nature. Since this study requires the participants to self-report and answer the surveys, the accurate and truthful information can be lied about as well as covered. The concern of whether the participants told the truth or lied can be suggested as a concern of this study. Another concern that can arise from this study is whether the participants were just procrastinating or was there something deeper. Were the patients more seriously affected by procrastination or more seriously having issues with sleep? Is it more than just a relationship between the two? The limitations of this study including the bias from participants and further research needed to play a role in the concerns that can arise. This paper is published in the right journal for the right audience. This journal emphasizes the idea of the population’s health, a group of people and their health. Procrastination affects the population, it affects a large group of people and their health. As highlighted in this study delaying can be a vulnerability factor for poor health, it can cause temptations and increase the distractions people face. Highlighting the negatives of procrastination and posing solutions to avoid this in this article corresponds with the main idea of this journal.

Problems and Admirations

I admire the use of a large sample size since it produces more accurate results but because the participants self-reported their procrastination and sleep habits it can cause the outcomes of this study to be inexact. Through the focus on a specific age group and group of people, undergraduates, young adults, this study provided more sufficient information on similar people and not a variety of people. The variables used were similar therefore provided more precise data. Using trusted resources such as the survey and scale allowed the researchers as well as the participants to be more honest and pose the research as more reliable and correct. Taking out and excluding patients who had very short or long sleep duration, patients with extreme values of sleep timing and participants who were shift workers was a clever proposition as it allowed the participants to give more error-free details. The publication of this paper can result in more studies with longitudinal or experimental designs, and more studies devoted to investigating the potential mediating roles of health behaviors. This study can lead people to access more procrastination treatment programs that benefit their time management skills. It can lead people to use more recommendations that can reduce procrastination. For example, adjusting proximity to temptations such as keeping the cell-phone out of the bedroom, can lead to procrastination being reduced. Lastly, the development of training programs targeting emotion regulation skills can be valuable, as this research showcases, the training of emotion-focused strategies decreases procrastination. Procrastination is so tiny but its impact is large, its simplicity is seen but its effects are complex, and its effects are widespread but it is understudied and underestimated.

Ilma Khan, Youth Medical Journal 2021

References

Li, Xiaoyu, et al. “Do Procrastinators Get Worse Sleep? Cross-Sectional Study of US Adolescents and Young Adults.” SSM – Population Health, Elsevier, 16 Nov. 2019, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352827319303362#:~:text=Conclusions,US%20undergraduate%20and%20graduate%20students.